In the story â€œHills like White Elephantsâ€ the vague dialogue conveys an allusive tone, in order to be represented correctly the author puts more emphasis in the characterâ€™s interaction with the setting. The setting is at a stopping point before their final destination. The dialogue mainly transpires throughout between the Girl and the American. This story is based around a vague dialogue, but is filled with the observations of the setting in order to express the pressure, significance, and opinions upon the subject at hand. In order grasp these messages, the reader interprets through the vivid imagery that is depicted by the author.The style of writing conveys this picture with an intended amount of clarity to leave the rest up to the reader to elucidate. This clarification is necessary in order for the reader to truly grasp the decision at hand and the weight of it as well. A metaphorical aspect of the setting is the â€œElephant in the Room â€. This implies that there is a subject that no one truly wants to discuss, and is left there to fester within the subconscious of these two characters until they have finally reached their decision. Another extended metaphor throughout the story is â€œâ€¦Like White Elephantsâ€.This symbol can be interpreted as a great gift given to a person, but it is also a heavy burden that most would not desire. At this time they are having the discussion on whether or not to have an â€œOperationâ€. There are four main aspects of the setting that reflect upon the tone. The first are the hills mentioned in the beginning of the story. The second is the isolation between the two characters within the train station, and this is mainly because of itâ€™s opposition to the tone, The first part of the setting that is mentioned is the hills along the Ebro Valley that from their perspective has no shade or trees.The absence of shade represents the blatant manner of how the American goes about convincing the girl in this story. Over and over again he promises happiness if she agrees. The trees represent life she is considering having. The absence of shade also shows why there is an absence of trees. As the â€œsunâ€ overwhelms the â€œtreesâ€ they start to wither away. For example, later in the story as another form of persuasion he says â€œI donâ€™t want you to do it if you feel that way â€ in order to coax her in to making the decision he wishes for without making it seem that he had any influence with it.This displays the Americanâ€™s true intention to rid Jig and himself of the baby. The lack of shade may also symbolize the lack of thought the girl goes through for the Americanâ€™s suggestions. For example, the girl does not speak Spanish and therefore relies on him in order to get her a drink, and after that she also asks him if a drink is good with water claiming that she couldnâ€™t decide this on her own. Her dependency on the American in these situations indicates how reliant she is on him. This is an example of why she is so incapable of making such heavy decision.The second significant aspect of the setting is the Train station. The statement â€œthe station was between two lines of rails in the sun. â€ this has two significant observations. The first is the fact that the station is between two lines. This means that the conversation and the twoâ€™s relationship is at a â€œStopâ€ or a crossroad. At this point they are to make an important decision about whether or not to keep the baby. In this story youâ€™ll notice the dialogue of the girl sounds somewhat ambivalent due to the way her decision sways back and forth. This is a prime example of why.What she sees on that side ultimately depicts the choice she is about to make. For example; in the story the reader may notice that there are â€œno treesâ€ along the hillside. Later in the story the American is still busy trying to convince and then she gets up and she walks to the other side of the station she notices fields of prospering vegetation full of life alongside a flowing river whose viscosity emphasizes the idea of moving forward. These enticing promises from the American paired with the barren valley are dwarfed by the cornucopia of life seen within the field on the other.The juxtaposition between the two sides represents the heaviness of the choice on whether to give life or take it. The second tone-related characteristic of this station was the drinking between the American and the girl. As the girl and the American sat, she asked him what they should drink the American suggested alcohol. The beer was a way of escaping the serious discussion the two were trying to avoid. The alcohol was a method of getting around the â€œElephant in the Roomâ€ with such dry small talk as â€œThe beer is nice and cool â€ or â€œThey look like white elephantsâ€¦.. I`ve never seen oneâ€¦no you wouldnâ€™t have â€.The girl points out that this routine of â€œlook at thing and try new drinks? â€has grown tiring. This is the first change in her mood that is noticed, but after this small inquiry she recedes into her submissive nature continues this throughout most of the story. The third aspect of the setting that expresses the allusive tone is the juxtaposition between the two sides of the valley. This is another example of the reader relying on the setting in order to understand the representation of the tone. One of the sides features long white hills that resemble white elephants and are without shade or any trees.White Elephants are a symbol of burden, which anyone would normally abhor from. This mainly represents the Americanâ€™s view on how this pregnancy will affect the two of them and how theyâ€™ll live. He states â€œWe`ll be fine afterwards â€ and â€œThatâ€™s the only thing that bothers us. â€ in order to convince her about the positive things that will come out of this operation. The girl later retracts the statement about the hills looking like white elephants but states â€œTheyâ€™re lovely hillsâ€¦.. They donâ€™t really look like white elephants. I just meant the coloring through the trees. 9]â€. This portrays a sudden change within the girl; from being very submissive to what the American suggests (Reason why she sees the hills without trees and lifeless) to questioning the reason for avoiding the true matters at hand (Reason she now sees flaws in his logic and starts form optimistic views about how the baby should not have an effect on how their relationship functions. ). The trees on this side of the station ultimately resemble the life she can hope for, but the other side of the station represents a promise of homogenous happiness.This side is showcases the joys of not having to worry about the â€œOne thing that makes unhappyâ€. The fields of grain and the river appeared to represent the progress that the American promised. While the girl stares into this auspicious land a cloudâ€™s shadow is cast upon it. This shadow foretells the future that land that would prosper will have the shadowâ€™s influence over, meaning the American will most likely take over her will and rid her of independent thought. Moreover there have already been examples of her relying on him for the simple decisions, and taking his desires as a primary concern instead of her own.The fourth aspect setting that reflects the allusive tone is the train. This part of the story conveys a sense of pressure to the story since it occurs within a time period of 40 minutes. Also since this in an unpopulated train station the sense of isolation also has an effect on the characters. This sense of isolation forces them to face the â€œElephant in the Roomâ€ no matter how much they want and they must face it within the time frame. In order to avoid â€œtalking with herâ€ or communication between each other he speaks to her as if his attention was omewhere else. This explains why the Americanâ€™s compelling reasoning is being heard over and over again. Itâ€™s mainly because he wants her to see his view and submit to his â€œSuggestionâ€. Once his suggestions fail he entices her with promises of affluence in the future by showing her the land and saying all this could be ours. The girl once again falls under the pressure of the time frame she has to make the choice and looking for relationship security, but after her acceptance of this the American perseveres with his insistence.In response the asks for silence or otherwise sheâ€™ll scream, this symbolizes the need for seclusion in order to steal away from the constant battering and pressure of anotherâ€™s thoughts. The Woman then comes out with more alcohol in order to break the tension, also adds more pressure by saying â€œThe train comes in five minutes. â€. Instead of reiterating his last point he decides to take the heavy bags to the other side of the station, and when he comes back he decides to sit at the bar instead of the table with the Girl. He asks her if she felt better now and she replies with â€œI feel fineâ€¦.Thereâ€™s nothing wrong with me. I feel fine. â€ This tells us that she has resolved the issue by herself and is ready to continue with what she desires. In conclusion, we see that the different parts of the setting portray different methods of expressing their decision due to the lack of direct dialogue. Through things such as scenery like the hills; the change in how she sees them represent how her forms and has changed from when the story started. It has also been depicted through how the different sides of the train station juxtapose one another.On one side prosperity and promising futures are seen, but on the other side the desolate, dry, and lifeless hills promise nothing but a lack of progression. Another way the train station represents the tone is the change in what the girl sees alongside the hill as she abjures her previous statement and restates the hills no longer seem like white elephants but only appear that way through the trees. This change in viewpoint shows how she is starting to no longer lean on the opinion of the American and form one of her own.This retraction of her statement also means that she no longer sees this birth as the burden or the â€œOnly thing that makes us unhappyâ€ anymore. And lastly the inclusion of a timeframe increase the amount of weight that is felt within the decision making process. The train shows why the American is trying to be overly-persuasive in this conversation in order to convince her to go through with the operation. Overall, Ernest Hemingway expresses the majority of the decision through the characteristics of the setting and how the characters are willing, unwilling, or unable to interact with one another.
Applying Ethical Practice Essay Ethical Implications The ethical principles involved in the article reviewed are beneficence (bring about positive good) fidelity (trustworthy), and veracity (honesty) The nurse involved is caught between the core principles of nursing, by following the patients wish of not informing her parents by the diagnoses of a sexually transmitted disease. The implications of betraying the core principles of nursing could cause internal conflict with her value principles, and not to mention the trust of the patient. Other implications could be how the parents view the patient. Strict religious convictions of the parents could cause more harm to the young teen by shunning the child, and not letting the child return home would keep the child from receiving the treatment needed, and possibly create a homeless situation for the teen. Making the school aware of the girlsâ€™ situation would also be breach of confidentially, and may even cause legal complications for the health care facility. The situation with the sex parties is not related to school activities, unless sex parties were occurring on campus. Due to the fact that the nurse informed the school the young teen attempts suicide, and again may have legal complications for the nurse and the health care facility. All of these implications can be seen in the article reviewed. Ethical Theories and Ethical Principals When it comes to veracity and fidelity the profession of nursing is considered to be at the top of the list. (Honesty/Ethics in Professions, 2013) The Nightingale Pledge calls nurses to have and use these value principles on a daily basis in nursing and also in every day life. According to the Code of Ethics for Nurses provision 3 3.2â€¦ the nurse has the duty to maintain confidentiality of all information. Maintaining these principles also promotes Nonmaleficence (do no harm). According Jean Watsonâ€™s carative factors (Lachman, 2012) â€œdeveloping and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationshipâ€ is at the very core of nursing. Building this relationship with the patient the nurse must be self aware of anyÂ judgmental feelings he/she may have regarding the patient situation.(Lachman, 2012) The nurse needs to decide what is the best way to care for the young teen. If confidentially is broken further treatment by the patient may not be sought after. Respecting the patient also means respecting confidentially. We must gain the patients fidelity and maintain the trust for continuing communication to occur. However in the article reviewed after the nurse discovers the young teens diagnoses she is torn between the trusting relationship she has been developing and the principle of beneficence by informing her parents of the diagnoses of cervical cancer. She also has the information regarding her sexual activates. Again this violates the confidentially needed to maintain the trusting relationship or beneficence. If the trust is not broken the young teen will not seek treatment and further harm will be done. Alternatives Alternatives to this situation would lead to probable breach of several core nursing values, fidelity and veracity. It would also breach Nonmaleficence. However the young teen is a minor and the diagnoses of cervical cancer is a diagnosis that needs treatment requiring parentâ€™s consent. The alternative of keeping the young teens confidence, would result in the patient not receiving the care she needs. Which would be a breach of Nonmaleficence. It would also be a breach fidelity and veracity between the physician and the nurse. The alternative to not informing the school of the sex parties would have a much better outcome, the suicide attempt most likely would not have occurred, and the health care facility would not be looking at probable legal proceedings. Maybe changing the language and leaving out the young teens name would have been a much better alternative. Ethics Committee Approaches A breach of confidentially should never be taken lightly. The disclosure of he information to the school and the resulting attempted suicide may be of bigger concern to the health care facility, rather than the breach of confidentially between the nurse and the young teen since she is a minor, and the breach of confidentially will bring about the care the young teen needs. The committee could raise the question about the physiciansâ€™ judgmentÂ and his decision to notify the school. References Honesty/Ethics in Professions. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/1654/honesty-ethics-professions.aspx Lachman, V. D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Nursing to Your Nursing Practice. MEDSURG NURSING, 21(2), 112-117. Retrieved from www.ana.org Nathanson, P. G. (2011, July, 6). Betraying Trust or Providing Good Care? When is it okay to break confidentially? American Journal of Bioethics. Purtilo, R. B., Doherty, R. F. (2011). Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders. American Nurses Association (ANA). (2001). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Silver Spring, MD: Author.
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